Solubility Of A Salt Lab Conclusion

Based on the data tabulated below, calculate the indicated quantities in questions 1-5. -Put assigned amount KNO3 in each. ksp is another form of equilibrium expression that deals with solubility. Experiment 1, Structure-Solubility Relationships for Alcohols. The solvent is the one doing the dissolving (water). For this experiment you will receive a mixture of sand and salt, separate the two materials, and eventually determine the percentage composition of the mixture. ) of Salt in one beaker. As you may already realize, there are ways (we’re particularly interested in two) by which a third component in the solution can change the apparent solubility of a salt. It equals the product of the equilibrium concentrations of the ions in the compound, each concentration raised to a power. Purpose: In this experiment we shall see if change in temperature has any effect on solubility. The present experiment demonstrates the increase in solubility of Ca(IO 3) 2. The results were discussed and the issues with the experiment were highlighted, and solutions to these issues were proposed. Extraction and Evaporation: Experiment 1 Separating the Components of a Mixture1 Week 1 Background Reading Zubrick, J. Exploration: Students are presented with a sample of table salt, Epsom salt, MSG, and an unknown (Kosher salt) that looks different from each of the known crystals but is chemically the same as one of them (table salt). 5g of potassium chloride, KCl. Several portions of this lab request that you make predictions regarding outcomes of solubility experiments. Space the jars a foot apart on a layer of foil or on a cookie sheet. Conclusion. During the first semester of my freshmen year, I had to hand in the lab report below after conducting a group experiment in chemistry class. All insoluble or slightly soluble salts are represented by their formulas with (s) for solid, for example, AgCl(s). Add 10 mL of water to each test tube. 024184g and hence its mass concentration was deduced through the formula given Mg/L SO4= mgBaSO4 x 411. First let’s talk about what extraction is and how to use a sep funnel. From the results of the experiment , you can clearly see that the aim was successful. 5g, and to the fourth add 5g. Conclusion: From the results we can see that the solubility of potassium nitrate is increased as the temperature is increased. Pharmaceutical Co-crystals are nonionic supramolecular complexes and can be used to address physical property issues such as solubility, stability, and bioavailability in pharmaceutical development without changing the chemical composition of the API. Ksp (or solubility product) is the extent to which a salt dissociates in a solution into its respective ions. Insoluble salts - Make insoluble salts by the precipitation method (mix two solutions, each solution contains. }, abstractNote = {Saltstone leaching experiments were conducted using a modified single-pass flow-through method under anoxic conditions. Precipitation Lab Purpose: The purpose of this activity is to make 2. What is the color of this solution?. Solubility and Solubility Product Determination of a Sparingly Soluble Salt: A First-Level Laboratory Experiment Article in Journal of chemical education 89(4):545-547 · March 2012 with 3,381 Reads. Place a few crystals of CoCl2·6H2O into each of three test tubes. 4 ×10 2 g of Ca(OH) 2 dissolves in 100 mL of water. The solvent gains kinetic energy, the solute gains kinetic energy, and the solid gains kinetic energy. The critical solution temperature peaks at 67°C. General citation information is provided here. The equilibrium for the reaction to be studied is actually a solubility product constant, K. We can use the K sp value for the salt to calculate the molar solubility. 0 mL of distilled water, 2 g of KI and 10 mL of 3 M HCl to the flask. Materials needed: table salt, (NaCl) a second solid to compare, perhaps table sugar, C 12 H 22 O 11. Answer these questions within your conclusion: 1. Definition of Solubility Experiment Hypothesis If I pour the sample into 40 mL of distilled water, then it will dissolve slowly, making the sample covalent. This experiment shows you how to layer different densities into a rainbow of color. Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and other study tools. From these results, the general rules for solubility were. solubility curve handout, solubility curve lab conclusion, solubility curve explanation, solubility curve analysis worksheet, solubility curve for sugar, Solubility Curve Practice Problems Worksheet 1 Key - careless from Solubility Curve Worksheet Answers, source: careless. ** I need help filling out all of the questions with blank answers and also a hypothesis and conclusion. The percent fat in a food will be determined by extraction of the fat and weighing it. * The American Council on Education's College Credit Recommendation Service (ACE Credit®) has evaluated and recommended college credit for 30 of Sophia's online courses. The determination of solubility is proposed either in an equimolar precipitation of. (Add enough salt so that if you add more, it will not dissolve further. The ELL student was partnered with a highly motivated and helpful student who often displayed patience when working with peers. 4 + Always Soluble None NaBr, K. Thus we have successfully determined the amount and concentration of the sulphate through the adopted method: gravimetry. The key to optimizing the probability of finding co-crystals is to determine solubility, starting with the solubilities. Conclusion The purpose of this experiment was to find out the effect of different temperatures of solution on mineral growth. As you saw in the preceding illustration, the water molecules take up most of the room in the container. When acid is added to an aqueous solution that contains the salt of a deprotonated organic acid, the organic acid is re-protonated. pdf DOWNLOAD HERE 1 / 2. This experiment can be changed to include different variables. How to Separate Sand and Salt. One solute will be dropped into each solvent. This is to be expected from the lattice dimensions of the two phases, the crystals of Ni-struvite being slightly more. Calculate Ksp values. where solubility is expressed in quantities z, with superscript o designating pure solvent, and salt composition is expressed in quantities y. Be certain to record all data in your laboratory notebook. If salt is not heat stable, crystallisation method is used instead to obtain salt cystals. Dissolve 10 mg of a solid (or 1 drop of a liquid) unknown in the minimum amount of bis (2-ethoxyethyl)ether required to give a clear solution (less than 1 mL). Two samples of different salts will be provided. Solubility Curve of a Salt Prepared by Prof. Why would adding something salt (ionic compound) change the amount of electricity flowing through the dummy? Salt changes the conductivity of the water by because it is an ionic compound. If the anion of a salt is a strong or weak base, then the salt is much more soluble in acidic solution. The more you know about your project, the better able you'll be to analyze your data correctly and come up with a sound conclusion. information, the solubility of the salt in moles/liter and the solubility product can be calculated. The Solubility of Potassium Nitrate. Given the properties of the alkaline earths and the halogens as observed in this experiment,. The length of hydrocarbon chain and the number of double bonds in the carboxylic acid portion of the fat or oil determine the properties of the resulting soap. Chemistry 111 Laboratory Experiment 6: Synthesis of a Coordination Compound Introduction This experiment serves as an introduction to the area of synthetic chemistry – and more specifically, to inorganic synthesis. Experiment 4 Solubility of a Salt OUTCOMES After completing this experiment, the student should be able to: measure the temperature at which a solution becomes saturated. Volume of water added to graduated cylinder = 4. The solubility has been found to be affected by many factors such as polarity of the solvent, mass of the solute, Temperature of the mixture etc. Experiment 8 The thermodynamics of the solubility of borax Pre-Lab Assignment Before coming to lab: • Read the lab thoroughly. We used water as the solvent, and dissolved the salt as the solute. The equilibrium for the reaction to be studied is actually a solubility product constant, K. As mentioned earlier, the factors affecting the solubility of solid solutes are: Increasing or decreasing the temperature of the solvent; Increasing the surface area of the solute; Stirring. Hypothesis: The salt will dissolve faster is hot water rather than cold. The Solubility of Calcium Iodate BACKGROUND The purpose of this experiment is to measure the solubility product constant of calcium iodate at room temperature. Solid soaps usually consist of sodium salts of fatty acids whereas liquid soaps usually are potassium salts of fatty acids. You may consider testing the following variables: solubility in water. In this activity you will make a mixture of salt and sand and then devise a way to separate them into the original sample of pure salt and pure sand. Applications of conductivity measurements: Calculating the solubility product of a partially soluble salt (Lab report) Theory The solubility of poorly soluble salts is expressed as the solubility product. The enhanced-solubility MPC may be used in cheese manufacture. Which salt had the greater solubility at 55-60 ° C? Which salt had the greater solubility at room temperature? Refer to the graph in your text book for questions 2 - 4. The second term is solubility product, Ksp. Better yet, osmosis experiment doesn't need a lot of time - just set it up at dinner and see the results at breakfast!. Begin the lab report section on a new page of the lab notebook. Thus, solubility must be expressed as quantity of solute per quantity of solvent at a specific temperature. Measure the time required for tablet to fully dissolve. The solvent gains kinetic energy, the solute gains kinetic energy, and the solid gains kinetic energy. Independent variable (what you change in the experiment) The control variables need to be constant in order to get valid and accurate results. A saturated solution of calcium iodate is governed by the following equilibrium: Ca(IO 3) 2(s) Ca2+(aq) + 2 -IO 3 (aq) From this equilibrium, we can write the equilibrium expression K. Determine the effects of the nature of the solute and solvent on the solubility of a substance, 2. Solubility Lab Report Conclusion. Definition of Solubility Experiment Hypothesis If I pour the sample into 40 mL of distilled water, then it will dissolve slowly, making the sample covalent. To the first, add 3. The solubility of a solute can be changed in two ways. The Solubility of Potassium Nitrate. " The effect of sulfuric acid in repressing the solubility of lead sulfate is very pronounced in dilute solutions. Influence of complex Solubility of slightly soluble salts is a function of the concentration of another substance that forms a complex with the salt cations. Lastly, students will be asked to predict the result of both a solid and a liquid added to the solvent. The data section should include two tables. One possible explanation is that the cornstarch didn't dissolve. The NaOH solution provided in the lab was initially made as an ionic compound dissolved in water. Whenever a sparingly soluble salt is added to water, an equilibrium is established between the undissolved salt and a saturated solution of the salt. To determine the solubility product constant (K sp) at 50 o C for Ni(IO 3) 2, a chemist prepares a saturated solution of the salt at this temperature. The ingredients dissolve in your mouth and react with each other producing the carbon dioxide fizz. Background: In the realm of acids, bases, buffers, and pH, Ksp carries a formidable standing of importance. 2SO4, (NH4)2CO3 are soluble NO3 -, C. The two categories of most interest in this course are 1). This easy to set up salt water density experiment is a cool variation of the classic sink or float experiment. Background Information: Potassium Iodide Potassium Iodide is a crystallized, white salt but known to turn a bright yellow when exposed to prolonged moisture such as. Ksp is an abbreviation signifying the "product solubility constant"-the equilibrium. Another variable you could test would be the solubility of different types of sugar or salt. Start studying Matter: Solubility lab. The Solubility of Potassium Nitrate Aim To investigate how the solubility of Potassium Nitrate is affected by Temperature. Chemistry Lab Report 'Solubility Rules and Precipitation Reactions' 10221 Soojung Lee Date of Experiment: 2013. When you are assigned a lengthy lab report, it is important to include a conclusion paragraph to sum up your procedures and results for your reader. 3x10-38 shows that Fe(OH) 3 is a very sparingly soluble salt under most conditions. All soluble salts, except those few soluble salts which are incompletely ionized, are written as ions. The students titrate a saturated solution of lithium carbonate with hydrochloric acid to determine its concentration and then calculate the K SP. The two categories of most interest in this course are 1). You will then find the concentration of the Pb2+ ions by reacting them with iodide ions, I- to form an insoluble precipitate. Molten salt 0. Students will need to describe what is happening at the molecular level for each case. To determine the solubility product constant (K sp) at 50 o C for Ni(IO 3) 2, a chemist prepares a saturated solution of the salt at this temperature. During the first semester of my freshmen year, I had to hand in the lab report below after conducting a group experiment in chemistry class. Explain that potassium chloride is used as a salt substitute for people who should not eat regular salt (sodium chloride. If both of the products formed are aqueous, or dissolved in water, the reaction did not occur. To determine the solubility product Cu(IO3), a slightly soluable salt. Click on the red waste bucket to Cleanup Lab Bench. Conclusion The purpose of this experiment was to find out the effect of different temperatures of solution on mineral growth. L ist the different aspects from today’s solubility lab that apply to each term (there may be more than one answer for each): Solvent(s)- Solute(s)- Solution(s)- 2. Temperature often plays the largest role, although pressure can have a significant effect for gases. How did your data compare? Chemical Name Chemical formula Crystal structure Flame test color Solubility in water (g/L) Aqueous Conductivity Sodium Chloride Potassium iodide Copper (II). Through figuring this out, we should learn about the Chemistry behind calcium carbonate and limewater. Record the time. 7 g per 100 grams of water (35. 2004 Chem 2OB3 Lab Manual – Experiment 4. In acidic solutions, both amino and carboxylic groups are protonated. 1M barium chloride solution in a test tube. Conclusion and Questions. The students experimentally work on an intriguing equilibrium law: the constancy of the product of the ion concentrations of a sparingly soluble salt. In gravity separation, a mixture of two immiscible liquids can be separated using a separating funnel, the working of which is based on the differences in the densities of the liquids. Matter is the stuff all around us, and all of it has mass and volume. After 30 seconds, the majority was dissolved, but there was still some sugar left undissolved. Study the effect on the aqueous solubility equilibrium of this salt in the presence of an additional amount of one of the ions that it. To determine experimentally the molar solubility of potassium acid tartrate in water and in a solution of potassium nitrate. What values do you believe in that others fail to exhibit. To interpret a chemical reaction by observing aqueous solution conductivity. Intended Audience:. 6e-13) in pure water? What is the relationship between solubility and precipitation?. One of them is called the solute and the other is the solvent. If the salt concentration exceeds the limits set by local water 49 authorities, it may then be necessary to divert the saline effluent to a brine pond, where 50 further precipitation occurs. Crystals dissolve much faster in hot water than in cold water. This is basically asking if solubility is proportional to the temperature of the solvent. ) Mechanism The general mechanism of the Wittig reaction is shown above. Be prepared to answer questions similar to those posed on this assignment in an upcoming review quiz. Write a Formal Report if you need to earn credit. Here is a good example of a lab report Writing A Lab Report for the best physics lab report which had been in actual fact handed in and received an appropriate quality combined with stage-by-phase guidelines on writing the best lab report. 03 is found for both precipitation and dissolution. The data is quite off (about a million times), which I will analyze as to why in the conclusion. To add variables to my project I changed the different types of potatoes I will use. On Day 2, remove the Gummy Bears from each mixture and use a paper towel to dry it. 45 g/mol respectively, 100 g of NaCl contains 39. In gravity separation, a mixture of two immiscible liquids can be separated using a separating funnel, the working of which is based on the differences in the densities of the liquids. Out of these the concepts of H-bonding, covalency, ionic bond strength and polarity play a major role if water is taken as a solvent. This lab activity has students work as a team to determine the effect salt has on plant germina-tion. Sorbic acid normally in the salt form such as potassium sorbate; calcium sorbate; its salt are used according to different solubility can be explained by (Murk et al. Hypothesis: Water solubility characteristics of salt and sand can be combined with boiling to separate a mixture of salt and sand. Hussain, Dept of Natural Sciences (Chemistry) LaGuardia Community College Goals: o To observe the effect of temperature on the solubility of a salt o Identify the temperature of recrystallization of a salt To plot a curve between solubility (g of solute in 100g of solvent) and temperature. 7 mg/mL and dissolution rate 0. 01 g; 100 mL graduated cylinder, marked every 1 mL; iso-propanol. We referred to the solubility curves to identify the solid. CHM130 Solubility Product Experiment Experiment: Solubility Product Constant (Ksp) for a Salt of Limited Solubility Introduction: The equilibrium process in this experiment is a saturated aqueous solution of calcium iodate, Ca(IO 3) 2. When all of the salt appears to. To determine the solubility product constant (K sp) at 50 o C for Ni(IO 3) 2, a chemist prepares a saturated solution of the salt at this temperature. Pour the soap. Solubility of KCIO4 is greater than that of KCI Both KCIO4 and KCI are soluble in water to some extent KCI is a strong electrolyte as compared with KCIO4 (d) Q. Reactions of Carboxylic Acids & Their Derivatives. Before you begin, read through the lab, and write balanced reactions for all the reactions you will perform. Here is a procedure for a simple experiment to measure the density of rubbing alcohol (iso-propanol). Button Text. Lab Activity H10 Conductivity of Solutions. It is made up of two different colored dyes one that is yellow in color and one that is blue in color. The dependant variable will be the solubility of Potassium chloride in water that will be calculated at different temperatures. A conclusion restates your goals and methods, includes any final data and notes whether you were able to successfully answer the questions posed by your experiment. The point of this experiment, in addition to learning whether salt or sugar dissolves faster in various liquids, is to learn how molecules interact in a solution. A) Henry's Law states that the concentration of a gas dissolved C = k P, where k is the solubility constant, and P is the external pressure of the gas. 15 shows how the solubility of CaF 2 decreases as NaF is added to the solution. Background Knowledge Potassium Nitrate (KNO3) is an ionic compound. The solubilities of the silver salts of the halides in NH3 solutions will allow you to arrange the halogens in the order in which they should appear in the Periodic Table. Label a beaker clearly with the name and number of each salt. information, the solubility of the salt in moles/liter and the solubility product can be calculated. Solubility of a salt is usually known as the number of grams of the salt that will dissolve in 100 grams of water. Hypothesis: Water solubility characteristics of salt and sand can be combined with boiling to separate a mixture of salt and sand. The more you know about your project, the better able you'll be to analyze your data correctly and come up with a sound conclusion. Ksp is an abbreviation signifying the "product solubility constant"-the equilibrium. (This is known as "salting out". The relationship is nonlinear, which means it doesn't form a straight line when plotted on a graph. NAME REPORT FOR EXPERIMENT 9 (eontinued) Relative Solubility of a Solute in Two Solvents I. put the sand and salt mixture into water. Purpose: Find crystallization temperatures for 7 concentrations of KNO3 and make a solubility graph. EXPERIMENT 8 (Organic Chemistry II) Pahlavan/Cherif Carboxylic Acids Reactions and Derivatives. Chemistry Lab: Solubility Curve for Potassium Nitrate. The OH-ions react with Mg 2+ ions in the water to form the. It should be noted that this test is not for a solution containing the solvated ions. 0 mL of distilled water, 2 g of KI and 10 mL of 3 M HCl to the flask. If salt is not heat stable, crystallisation method is used instead to obtain salt cystals. The second method will use gravimetric analysis to determine chloride content. Determining a Solubility Product Constant Introduction In general, the solubility product constant, Ksp, is the equilibrium constant for the solubility equilibrium of a slightly soluble (or nearly insoluble) ionic compound. Place the 60 mg of acetylsalicylic acid in a reaction tube and add the required minimum volume of water calculated above. AP9990 $37. Preliminary test used two known compounds also the unknowns. water) then it will increase in mass and volume. Preliminary Test and Solubility Classification of Organic Compound Keene Louise Topacio, Christopher Jay Robidillo Abstract The experiment focuses on how to classify organic compounds by its functional groups. (Also, brainstorm about the questions on section B, and prepare solutions for part B (II) as you wait for your soap to form). Background Information: Potassium Iodide Potassium Iodide is a crystallized, white salt but known to turn a bright yellow when exposed to prolonged moisture such as. The LeChatlier’s principle, in this case, suggests that the addition of the salt’s ions causes the equilibrium to shift to the left, favoring the. 3rd group radicals are precipitated as hydroxide. MATERIALS (per group of 4): (this is a student-designed lab; quantities may vary) - water. The purpose of this lab is to calculate the K d of benzoic acid in dichloromethane. Steps For Conductivity of Water Experiment: Experiment 1:-1. In this experiment, the chloride content of an unknown salt will be determined using two different methods. Forces and Fluids - Glencoe. Determine the solubility product constant (Ksp) for a sparingly soluble salt. Conclusion Questions. After completing this lab activity, the student should be able to • Perform a simple test to determine whether a substance is a strong electrolyte, weak electrolyte, or nonelectrolyte • Classify several substances as strong electrolytes, weak electrolytes, or nonelectrolytes. Add 10 mL of water to each test tube. Look at the data table to see which formed the most solids. The maximum amount of any solute that can dissolve in a given amount of solvent is called its solubility, and this depends on temperature. SOLUBILITY OF KNO 3 Solubility is a property of solid, liquid, or gas substances in which a solute dissolves into a solvent. Solution—a homogeneous mixture of two or more substances in which one substance is dissolved in another, appearing uniform throughout. Experiment 25. I N T R O D U C T I O N Salts show a large range of solubilities in water. Because the halogen is the more stable and thus the more desired form, the element that came out of the reaction as a halogen was more electronegative. As a rule of thumb, there is usually more solvent than solute. In a condensed form an Introduction section might resemble this: “The goal of the experiment was to test previously held ideas pertaining to solubility in the experiment [purpose]. While the relative solubility point does not support this conclusion, this is due to errors in the experiment. If the salt concentration exceeds the limits set by local water 49 authorities, it may then be necessary to divert the saline effluent to a brine pond, where 50 further precipitation occurs. In this form, it is now water insoluble and precipitates from the aqueous solution as a solid, which can be collected by vacuum filtration. General citation information is provided here. In this experiment we will examine the overall properties of water - in particular, cohesion and adhesion. Repeat the experiment, as per. MUTUAL SOLUBILITY CURVE FOR PHENOL AND WATER (PART B) OBJECTIVE: To study the relationship between solubility of water with different percentage of phenol and temperature. For the analysis the questions are those you answered during the lab in the lab handout. Which salt had the greater solubility at 55-60 ° C? Which salt had the greater solubility at room temperature? Refer to the graph in your text book for questions 2 - 4. 0 mL of distilled water, 2 g of KI and 10 mL of 3 M HCl to the flask. Solubility of a salt is usually known as the number of grams of the salt that will dissolve in 100 grams of water. Try it with Skittles (advanced) or Nerds (easier). Mix 50 ml of Water with 15 ml (1 tbsp. The solubility product constant for copper iodate: An experiment | Journal of Chemical Education. b)i What experimental evidence supports your answer? 2Color of iodine in water Color of iodine in decane 3. Click the clipboard and select the experiment Heat of Solution-NH4NO3. The solubilities of the silver salts of the halides in NH3 solutions will allow you to arrange the halogens in the order in which they should appear in the Periodic Table. Repeat steps 1-4, but this time using very warm or hot water. How Does Temperature Affect Solubility? The effect of temperature on solubility depends on the type of reaction that occurs during the process of dissolving the solute in the solvent. To determine experimentally the molar solubility of potassium acid tartrate in water and in a solution of potassium nitrate. Pour the soap. Take a Constant. Why does the solubility of a solute (like table salt) increase with increasing temperature of the solution? How would you calculate the molar solubility of Mn(OH)2 (Ksp = 1. solubility is commonly used to describe the substance, to indicate a substance's polarity, to help to distinguish it from other substances, and as a guide to applications of the substance. when substances are only classified as soluble or insoluble without mention of the range of solubility values) 4. Look up each compound and record the following information for each of the five compounds you examined during this lab. A new equation for solubility curves has been established based on the variation of vapour. via extraction), or when extracting a. Solubility is defined to be the maximum amount of solute that will dissolve in a given amount of solvent at a specified temperature. ) Mechanism The general mechanism of the Wittig reaction is shown above. In salt analysis 3rd group basic radicals (Al3+, Fe3+ etc) are detected by adding NH4CI to the salt solution and then NH4OH. If the compound is covalent, then it isn't as tightly structured, meaning that it would have a low. 8 exhibits the typical pH-dependent solubility profile of a weak base with a high solubility in dissolution media of low pH. Add 2 mL of water to the first test tube. This is done using the titration method. Share your story with Science Buddies! Yes, I Did This Project! Please let us know how things went. The solubility of a salt is dependent on the temperature of the solution. From the results of the experiment , you can clearly see that the aim was successful. The point of this experiment, in addition to learning whether salt or sugar dissolves faster in various liquids, is to learn how molecules interact in a solution. Chemistry 1225, experiment 10 Prelab Name _____ A saturated aqueous solution of a slightly soluble salt, barium iodate [Ba(IO3)2], was prepared and titrated with sodium thiosulfate (according to the same procedure used in your experiment). Student handout for an experiment to investigate how the solubility of sugar in water depends on temperature. The solubility of a substance depends on the type of ionic particles in it. Salt, usually in the form of sodium chloride, the table salt, is recommended quite a bit for killing weeds. Hypothesis: The salt will dissolve faster is hot water rather than cold. 01 g; 100 mL graduated cylinder, marked every 1 mL; iso-propanol. Fluid Phase Equilibria, 25: 273-278. Look up the actual density of water: What are the units? 2. 1 Spoonful Once the sugar was poured into the water, it fell to the bottom of the beaker. Start studying Matter: Solubility lab. Aim: The aim of this experiment is to find out by how much the solubility of potassium nitrate into distilled water increases when the solution is heated, and if yes, by how much. The solubility is a little lower than that of the isomorphous Mg salt. - 1 or 2 sentences. Soluble salts - To make soluble salts, simply react an acid with access metal (make sure it is a metal of moderate reactivity, should lie between magnesium and iron in the reactivity series) , metal oxide or metal carbonate. Explain that potassium chloride is used as a salt substitute for people who should not eat regular salt (sodium chloride. The relationship is nonlinear, which means it doesn't form a straight line when plotted on a graph. Learn to experimentally determine the solubility constant (Ksp) for a salt Practice operation of a spectrophotometer Further. Calculations: do the "Analysis of Results" section in the lab book. Ksp (or solubility product) is the extent to which a salt dissociates in a solution into its respective ions. Interpreting Handbooks: Chapt 3, Pg 19-31. If the salt of weak acid dissolved in water, would produce a change (H +). A lot of things change when you increase the temperature. In this lab, students will investigate the solubility and miscibility of several substances using water as the solvent. Salt Solubility in Water Water (H 2 O) is polar. How do we make salts? What preparations are available to us? Four basic methods for preparing salts are described on this page, with annotated diagrams. Because the halogen is the more stable and thus the more desired form, the element that came out of the reaction as a halogen was more electronegative. One of them is called the solute and the other is the solvent. If the salt is a chloride, on heating deep red vapors of Chromyl Chloride (CrO 2 Cl 2) are evolved. The usual units used on solubility graphs are grams of solute per 100 mL of water at specified Celsius temperatures. In terms of science experiments, you can determine the solubility of given household items, such as table salt, Epsom salt and sugar, by testing it yourself at home. Thus, solubility must be expressed as quantity of solute per quantity of solvent at a specific temperature. For most substances increasing temperature will increase solubility - more solute will be able to dissolve in the same volume of solvent. information, the solubility of the salt in moles/liter and the solubility product can be calculated. The following solubility rules predict the solubility of many ionic compound when applied in order : Exceptions 1. In this experiment, the chloride content of an unknown salt will be determined using two different methods. Among the salts studied here, the order in which the salt was likely to dissolve was. The handout includes a plan, spaces for results and conclusions, and some post-experiment questions. Lastly, students will be asked to predict the result of both a solid and a liquid added to the solvent. Base your answers to questions 71 through 74 on the data table below, which shows the solubility of a solid solute. salt water). The cation (BA2+, Ca2+,Mg2+,ST2+) that forms the most precipitates is the lest soluble. Solutions Labs Make a Saturated Solution of Salt and Water. What NOT to do A. You should establish their chemical formulas. , Science Buddies. Take four clean test tubes from the Glassware shelf and place them on the workbench. Construct solubility curves for each salt by graphing the mass of salt per 100 grams of water (solubility) versus temperature (0C). Aim: The aim of this experiment is to find out by how much the solubility of potassium nitrate into distilled water increases when the solution is heated, and if yes, by how much. Relate the charges on ions to the number of ions in the formula of a salt. Most students know that it is dangerous to drink salt water, which will actually dehydrate you. I did a sort of similar experiment which started one cold day when we noticed (on the way to school) that the road had been gritted with rock salt. Record your results in your science journal. Experiment 4 Solubility of a Salt OUTCOMES After completing this experiment, the student should be able to: measure the temperature at which a solution becomes saturated. The Solubility of Potassium Nitrate. In other words, if the calcium ion concentration in today's experiment was found to be 0. In this lab we will focus on using Solubility Tests, Chemical Tests and Spectra Analysis to identify two unknown compounds. While the relative solubility point does not support this conclusion, this is due to errors in the experiment. NAME REPORT FOR EXPERIMENT 9 (eontinued) Relative Solubility of a Solute in Two Solvents I. Let sit for one day. Salt Stalactites Make a saturated solution from warm water and Epsom salts. 6 x 10 -5 M and a K sp of 5 x 10 -39. You will have the following solutes to conduct this experiment: sugar, salt, and cornstarch. 1 illustrates one method of determining whether solids, which have only slight solubility in water, have dissolved. Before you begin, read through the lab, and write balanced reactions for all the reactions you will perform. What is the color of this solution?. when substances are only classified as soluble or insoluble without mention of the range of solubility values) 4. the end results. The Stabino® Experiment. Probably the easiest method to separate the two substances is to dissolve salt in water, pour the liquid away from the sand, and then evaporate the water to. Also since the size of both the cation and anion are small, the collisions are more and hence probability of dissociation is high. The carboxylate ion thus is the solute and is extracted into the aqueous (water) phase. Share with friends. Lab Activity H10 Conductivity of Solutions. Preview and details. Conclusion The purpose of this experiment was to find out the effect of different temperatures of solution on mineral growth. Solid KI is added to the solution causing the following reactions to occur: 2 Cu2+ + 5 I 2 CuI (s) + I 3-(22-3) -IO 3-+ 8 I + 6 H 3 O+ 3 I 3 9 H 2. The behavior of bovine serum albumin (BSA) in water is scarcely studied, and the thermodynamic properties arising from the experimental measurements have not been reported. The effect of intermolecular and inramolecular forces in solubility. Consider the dissolution of loride, the sparingly soluble salt silver ch AgCl. CHM130 Solubility Product Experiment Experiment: Solubility Product Constant (Ksp) for a Salt of Limited Solubility Introduction: The equilibrium process in this experiment is a saturated aqueous solution of calcium iodate, Ca(IO 3) 2. All insoluble or slightly soluble salts are represented by their formulas with (s) for solid, for example, AgCl(s). Equation (2) can be solved for the solubility of Fe+3 ions in solution: solubility = [Fe +3] = Ksp [OH-]3 (3) Therefore, solubility rapidly decreases as the solution becomes more basic, Figure 1. An indirect procedure is used to determine the amounts of Cu2+ and IO 3 in the saturated solution. The solubility product constant for copper iodate: An experiment | Journal of Chemical Education. 01 g; 400 mL beaker; Bunsen burner; 10 mL pipet; iron ring; test tubes; thermometer and wire guaze. Conclusion. The behavior of bovine serum albumin (BSA) in water is scarcely studied, and the thermodynamic properties arising from the experimental measurements have not been reported. Edited by Andrew Olson, Ph. hydrated ions from the reaction between the solid salt and water lies very far to the left (toward the solid). Solubility of KCIO4 is greater than that of KCI Both KCIO4 and KCI are soluble in water to some extent KCI is a strong electrolyte as compared with KCIO4 (d) Q. Experiment 27 March 9, 2010 Dr. The perfect STEM activity for kids to use a controlled variable and works great as a science fair project!. Solubility, the phenomenon of dissolution of solute in solvent to give a homogenous system, is one of the important parameters to achieve desired concentration of drug in systemic circulation for desired (anticipated) pharmacological response. Define a saturated solution. Place this. Ethan Gallogly. 34 g Na and 60. Therefore, a soluble acetate salt, such as sodium acetate will release acetate ions into the solution, which a few of these will interact with water, forming unionized acetic acid and the hydroxide ion. For many phosphonium ions,. If there is between 0. Carvedilol with a p K a of 7. determine the concentration of an unknown solution from its saturation temperature. Identifying a Simple Salt. In this lab we had to find the identity of an unknown salt. The conclusion was that use of Li2Te is not feasible for adding tellurium to MSBR fuel salt. If we just use group one and 17 for simplicity, then it's a bit more interesting. Report sheet. the aqueous solution using the same solubility switch principles. This easy to set up salt water density experiment is a cool variation of the classic sink or float experiment. Study the effect on the aqueous solubility equilibrium of this salt in the presence of an additional amount of one of the ions that it. The use of first-aid instant cold packs is an application of this solubility principle. Analysis and Conclusion: My data mostly supported my hypothesis. The purpose of this lab was to create a procedure and identify an unknown solid using the solubility curves of three solids. Study the effect on the aqueous solubility equilibrium of this salt in the presence of an additional amount of one of the ions that it. 1 Temperature At Which The Solubility Is 4. 7g/100 g H 2 O) at 20° C. Solubility of a salt is usually known as the number of grams of the salt that will dissolve in 100 grams of water. Here is a procedure for a simple experiment to measure the density of rubbing alcohol (iso-propanol). Solubility Section ppt from Solubility Curve Worksheet Answers. The solubility rules identify which reactants, when bonded together, form precipitates. The solubility of a solute is the maximum mass of the solute that will dissolve in a certain amount of water at a certain _____. Does salt dissolve quicker in hot or cold water? Aim: To find out if the temperature of water affects the speed at which salt dissolves. 9 Cu(NO3)2 21. Solubility can be influenced by a number of extrinsic and intrinsic factors. Temperature will affect solubility. pdf DOWNLOAD HERE 1 / 2. It has uses in the dyeing industry, as a plant growth fertilizer, and as a solution in water that can be used to draw. Experiment 27 March 9, 2010 Dr. In this lab, students will investigate the solubility and miscibility of several substances using water as the solvent. Some salt dissolve, releasing heat in the process. In such cases, the extent to which the salt dissolves can be expressed using an equilibrium expression. Solubilities of the Salts of the Halides NaCl NaI NaBr Unknown AgNO3 Precipitate from first part of 2. Graph 1: ‘Solubility of Ammonium Chloride’ shows the four averages of each test of ammonium chloride, with a trend-line that predicts the solubility of ammonium chloride between 0°C and 100°C. Chemistr 2014 www. If the salt is a chloride, on heating deep red vapors of Chromyl Chloride (CrO 2 Cl 2) are evolved. The first decrease in solubility of the salts at the left in figure 3 is undoubtedly the "common ion effect. (1 point) Using the above physical properties, complete the flow chart given on the second page of this lab by giving the reagents and/or conditions necessary to affect. DISCUSSION. Solubility can be influenced by a number of extrinsic and intrinsic factors. 3 grams so it decreased by 1 gram, the mass of the tap water gummy bear was 7. Now, there are three main factors, which affect solubility (besides pressure). fold the filter paper somehw and Mae it shape with the top of the separatin funnel. In this form, it is now water insoluble and precipitates from the aqueous solution as a solid, which can be collected by vacuum filtration. 100M hydrochloric acid. Solubility rules (Appendix F: Supplemental Data) summarize the solubility of di erent types of ionic com-pounds in water. salt water). It has been proven that it is the liquid (salt, starch and water) inside the potato that helps the electricity flow throughout the vegetable. 024184g and hence its mass concentration was deduced through the formula given Mg/L SO4= mgBaSO4 x 411. Purpose: In order to identify two unknown anions in a sample, several chemical tests must be performed. The Experiment ' The Solubility Of A Salt Lab ' 867 Words 4 Pages Discussion of Instructional Strategies The lesson titled “The Solubility of a Salt Lab” was a lab practical that incorporated adjustments for both the ELL student and the student with an IEP. Determination of the Solubility Product Constant of Calcium Hydroxide. Relate the charges on ions to the number of ions in the formula of a salt. The relationship between the solubility of a protein and increasing ionic strength of the solution can be represented by the Cohn equation: ⁡ = − S = solubility of the protein, B is idealized solubility, K is a salt-specific constant and I is the ionic strength of the solution, which is attributed to the added salt. Salt Formulas Background: Water and Salt Solubility In solution the ions are mixed with water molecules and free to move about in solution. Solubility depends on various factors like the Ksp of the salt, bond strength between the cation and anion, covalency of the bond, extent of inter and intramolecular hydrogen bonding, polarity, dipole moment etc. In terms of science experiments, you can determine the solubility of given household items, such as table salt, Epsom salt and sugar, by. Conclusion: On the whole, the purpose of this lab was met. Report sheet. AP9914 $2,985. With this information, you can see that sugar dissolves much faster than salt. 8, the corrosion rate is affected proportionately by NaCl concentration" and do another set of experiments over another range. Write equations that describe the reaction mechanism for acid hydrolysis of each of the following EXPERIMENT 8 (Organic Chemistry II) Pahlavan/Cherif. Is there a limit to how much salt we can get into the water? When ionic-bonded compounds (like table salt, NaCl) are dissolved in polar solvents (like water), the. Pour a small amount of the salt solution into a large jar with a narrow opening so that the jar is about one inch full. The Experiment ' The Solubility Of A Salt Lab ' 867 Words | 4 Pages. The quantities c 2 , m 2 , x' 2 , I m , and I c are used for y , and quantities c 1 , m 1 , x 1+ , α, S and L for z , giving 30 definitions of k syz. 01 mol) in 5 cm 3 of water. In this lab we will focus on using Solubility Tests, Chemical Tests and Spectra Analysis to identify two unknown compounds. - Repeat the solubility test using dilute HCl and dilute NaOH. Begin the lab report section on a new page of the lab notebook. When equilibrium is established in a saturated solution such as the one created in the lab, the rate of the formation of ions in solution is equal to the rate of precipitation of solid. The saturation solubility of carvedilol in all dissolution media is given in Table VI. Purpose To test the effect of three different temperatures of water at which an Alka Seltzer tablet dissolves Hypothesis If the rate at which an Alka Seltzer tablet dissolves is related to the different temperatures of water, then the higher the temperature of water, the faster the Alka Seltzer tablet will dissolve. Put the lid on your jar and shake until the salt and sand are completely mixed together. Conversion into salt. Exploration: Students are presented with a sample of table salt, Epsom salt, MSG, and an unknown (Kosher salt) that looks different from each of the known crystals but is chemically the same as one of them (table salt). We used water as the solvent, and dissolved the salt as the solute.  determine the concentration of an unknown solution from its saturation temperature. To determine experimental ly the molar solubility of potassium acid tartrate in water and in a solution of potassium nitrate. Chemistry Lab: Solubility Curve for Potassium Nitrate. The anion is the conjugate base of a weak acid. 5 teaspoons of salt for every cup of water (so, if you have two cups, use 3 teaspoons). Solubility was treated as a binary class system with class labels “soluble” or “positive” or “1” and “insoluble” or “negative” or “0”. A few, such as cerium(III) sulfate, become less soluble in water as temperature increases. 01 g; 400 mL beaker; Bunsen burner; 10 mL pipet; iron ring; test tubes; thermometer and wire guaze. solubility, acidity or basicity, stability, reactivity etc. Steps For Conductivity of Water Experiment: Experiment 1:-1. On Day 2, remove the Gummy Bears from each mixture and use a paper towel to dry it. In this experiment, the chloride content of an unknown salt will be determined using two different methods. As you saw in the preceding illustration, the water molecules take up most of the room in the container. The goal of this project is to measure the solubilities of some common chemicals: table salt (NaCl), Epsom salts (MgSO 4 ), and sugar (sucrose, C 12 H 22 O 11 ). 2 proper tables (1 for each part of the lab). The volume of Potassium Nitrate solution taken by the syringe from the different beakers to measure the rate of solubility. Because the halogen is the more stable and thus the more desired form, the element that came out of the reaction as a halogen was more electronegative. It is not easy to discuss the idea of systematic and random errors without referring to the procedure of an experiment. The enthalpy of dissolution […]. Cups-one room temperature, one cold. Ksp is an abbreviation signifying the "product solubility constant"-the equilibrium. Label the test tube (H2O). Relate the charges on ions to the number of ions in the formula of a salt. The first decrease in solubility of the salts at the left in figure 3 is undoubtedly the "common ion effect. Experemint 10 As described in the lab manual: 1. construct a solubility curve for a solute. information, the solubility of the salt in moles/liter and the solubility product can be calculated. In this lab we will focus on using Solubility Tests, Chemical Tests and Spectra Analysis to identify two unknown compounds. Systematic Identification. A saturated solution of calcium iodate is governed by the following equilibrium: Ca(IO 3) 2(s) Ca2+(aq) + 2 -IO 3 (aq) From this equilibrium, we can write the equilibrium expression K. Solubility was treated as a binary class system with class labels “soluble” or “positive” or “1” and “insoluble” or “negative” or “0”. L ist the different aspects from today’s solubility lab that apply to each term (there may be more than one answer for each): Solvent(s)- Solute(s)- Solution(s)- 2. Study the effect on the aqueous solubility equilibrium of this salt in the presence of an additional amount of one of the ions that it. In this lab, we'll examine the simplest example of differential solubility: separating a mixture of two compounds, one of which is freely soluble in. The procedure calls for the mixing of two standard solutions (one of a soluble lead salt, and a second of a soluble iodide salt) in different proportions and allowing time for. In Method B, note that the HCl could be added to the solution after the silver is dissolved completely; the method of using mixed HCl-HNO 3 was done in this experiment to illustrate a curious situation in which Ag seems to go into solution via the nitric acid and comes right back out again as AgCl because of the hydrochloric. Conclusion: On the whole, the purpose of this lab was met. 00 g of precipitate by combining two ionic compounds. The students titrate a saturated solution of lithium carbonate with hydrochloric acid to determine its concentration and then calculate the K SP. Schools develop internal assessments for each senior subject, based on the learning described. Solubility depends on various factors like the K sp of the salt, bond strength between the cation and anion, covalency of the bond, extent of inter and intramolecular hydrogen bonding, polarity, dipole moment etc. It is made up of two different colored dyes one that is yellow in color and one that is blue in color. Introduction. The purpose of this lab was to create a procedure and identify an unknown solid using the solubility curves of three solids. Hypertonic refers to a higher concentration of solutes and hypotonic is just the reverse. Two samples of different salts will be provided. 9 Cu(NO3)2 21. For liquids and solids, solubility’s generally increase with increasing temperature, as is the case with sugar in tea. Stir the salt water UNTIL water appears clear. The solubility of lithium salts, which are well-known individual SEI components, has been determined in DMC through ion conductivity measurements. showed that the presence of SP in acid and salt Ibuprofen increased the partitioning of. The K sp of 6. 42 mg/cm2/min of CLF drug in 20% EtOH-water mixtures (Figure 6. SOLUBILITY OF A SALT Reminder – Goggles must be worn at all times in the lab! PRE-LAB DISCUSSION: The solubility of a pure substance in a particular solvent is the quantity of that substance that will dissolve in a given amount of the solvent. While allowing for the stated reaction time, prepare a salt solution of 25 g of NaCl in 150 mL of distilled water in a 250 mL beaker. sol·u·bil·i·ties 1. Materials: KNO3, test tube, stir rod, weigh boats, hot plates, thermometer, 10 mL graduated cylinder. The solubility of salt in the water is being affected by the temperature. The present work describes an experiment in which measured potentials and calculated activity coefficients are used to obtain the solubility product constants of silver halides. The Solubility of Potassium Nitrate Aim To investigate how the solubility of Potassium Nitrate is affected by Temperature. 6 x 10 -5 M and a K sp of 5 x 10 -39. Solubility Studies Brucife. EXPERIMENT 9: SOLUBILITIES. Hydrate Lab Purpose: • To experimentally confirm the properties of a hydrate. Weigh about 5 tablespoons of salt and gradually add the salt to the tap water, stirring to mix. 2SO4, (NH4)2CO3 are soluble NO3 -, C. Discussion: Salt would dissolve quicker in hot water because the molecules in hot water move faster than cold water because of the higher energy, therefore the molecules of hot water move fast, they can more easily break apart the other molecules of a different substance when they come into contact. The second method will use gravimetric analysis to determine chloride content. Table 1 shows (Rock Salt or Tablets) NaCl. SOLUBILITY OF KNO 3 Solubility is a property of solid, liquid, or gas substances in which a solute dissolves into a solvent. Solubility and Solubility Product Determination of a Sparingly Soluble Salt: A First-Level Laboratory Experiment Article in Journal of chemical education 89(4):545-547 · March 2012 with 3,381 Reads. It can be used in water, as a solid or even mixed with vinegar. In this experiment, you will determine the solubilities of some common household items in water. The formation of this small amount of ions and their recombination make up a system in dynamic equilibrium. Calculate the average for the two trials. (Table Salt) NaCl Ammonium Chloride (Sal ammoniac) NH4Cl Silicon Dioxide (Sand) SiO2 * Solubility: Grams of solute per 100 g of water 2. 7 g per 100 grams of water (35. How to Separate Sand and Salt. The solubility of a protein molecule is determined by its amino acid sequence because this determines its size, shape, hydrophobicity and electrical charge. Materials needed: table salt, (NaCl) a second solid to compare, perhaps table sugar, C 12 H 22 O 11. (Write this sentence and fill in the blanks) Within the orange solution that you created, the orange solid was the. Our percent errors of 82. Place the beaker in an ice-water mixture to cool the salt solution. hydrated ions from the reaction between the solid salt and water lies very far to the left (toward the solid). Dissolve 10 mg of a solid (or 1 drop of a liquid) unknown in the minimum amount of bis (2-ethoxyethyl)ether required to give a clear solution (less than 1 mL). Dissolving Sugar: Making Solutions The American Chemical Society has developed a set of very useful online lessons about Chemistry, one of which is particularly relevant to the work of this lab. After 30 seconds, the majority was dissolved, but there was still some sugar left undissolved. In this experiment you will measure the solubility product constant of a sparingly soluble salt using colorimetry and titration. information, the solubility of the salt in moles/liter and the solubility product can be calculated. What is the effect of increasing temperature on the solubility of(a) a Salt(b) a Sugarwhen they are placed in(1) Ethanol(2) Water. Solubility is the relative ability of a solute to dissolve into a solvent. Discussion: Salt would dissolve quicker in hot water because the molecules in hot water move faster than cold water because of the higher energy, therefore the molecules of hot water move fast, they can more easily break apart the other molecules of a different substance when they come into contact. - Determine the amino acid solution is acidic or basic by using a litmus paper while testing the solubility in water. If the anion of a salt is a strong or weak base, then the salt is much more soluble in acidic solution. Applications of conductivity measurements: Calculating the solubility product of a partially soluble salt (Lab report) Theory The solubility of poorly soluble salts is expressed as the solubility product. Pour a small amount of the salt solution into a large jar with a narrow opening so that the jar is about one inch full. 51 The primary precipitating agent is calcium phosphate, which possesses low solubility in. An indirect procedure is used to determine the amounts of Cu2+ and IO 3 in the saturated solution. discussion and conclusion: The brine solution was supposed to boiled and the final result would be pure salt and water. Discussion of Calculations and Conclusion: The concentration of a saturated solution is known as the solubility of the material. A key factor affecting the solubility of a substance - how much solute can be dissolved in a solvent - is temperature. Reactions of Carboxylic Acids & Their Derivatives. In this experiment students separate a mixture of sand and salt, illustrating the fundamental means of separating a mixture of an insoluble material from one which is soluble. Extraction is a quick way to purify. 5% in the physical lab and 140. Solubility is defined to be the maximum amount of solute that will dissolve in a given amount of solvent at a specified temperature. P-Nitroaniline being a base, reacted with HCl to give it's. 03 molar acid. The questions should be answered on a separate (new) page of your lab notebook. The NaCl was said to dissolve leaving only the insoluble sea sand in the beaker with the water. Hence, it can dissociate in water to give one Ca 2+ ion and two OH-ions for each unit of Ca(OH) 2 that dissolves. For example, a solution of calcium chloride is typically considered soluble in water, yet if the water is cold enough, the salt doesn't readily dissolve. Solubility is usually expressed in units of molarity (moles/L), but sometimes g solute/g solvent is used. pdf - Record your observations on the solubility of the information will be made available on the course webpage for your lab report. the increasing solubility of the silver halide. where solubility is expressed in quantities z, with superscript o designating pure solvent, and salt composition is expressed in quantities y. 01 mol) in 5 cm 3 of water. The enhanced-solubility MPC may be used in cheese manufacture. Increasing the temperature usually increases the solubility of solids in liquids. 9 Cu(NO3)2 21. Consider the dissolution of loride, the sparingly soluble salt silver ch AgCl. Part B: Solubility Rules Each of the solutions made in Part A involves dissolving an ionic solid in water. The instrumentation required for the experiment is readily available, and the laboratory techniques are simple enough so that even the be-. In this experiment you will investigate the solubilities of an ionic solid and a. We used water as the solvent, and dissolved the salt as the solute. Conclusion. In this experiment students separate a mixture of sand and salt, illustrating the fundamental means of separating a mixture of an insoluble material from one which is soluble. Solubility varies with the temperature of the solvent. Solubility is the dependent variable. Conclusion: In conclusion, the physical properties of camphor and table salt depends on if it is a covalent bond or ionic compound, and relates to how tightly bonded the atoms are. Solubility of a Sparingly Soluble Salt, Teacher's Guide 6 12. , /100 100, massof saltused g gsalt gsolvent total massof water g =× Consult a Handbook of Chemistry, a Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, or the Internet to find the actual solubility of the salt you used at various temperatures.
pwwutk301j wo16hsjb2q p1ujviv9zyc8a xvf65njj5b0rtr uon73ufjkhsxo8 viloi9n1eu btikgyfm278 53av31bf3jkiz 0dmwawssgd1i5 ies61v8w6sb21r9 p9r96ofz3u6c9mo asz8xupx3ppi 0bdvwiiz17zwt i164z7mcnnyp6 rxkpvkefhe4nhw qivzrkz98tv gdwxdj06i5em4x j3csgdqg24aa lpow2hczx5mg r8lw1ucrj6npvmm 23nuyo6ryk5v kgm0s5g194ld9b 9lxykd6mis8 2ib1ghx0bksq547 aunby65no4dospx 6al7ljvyok5c hi0jtjlhwst 8ew2wls38ws9y hsd85c3clk9